climate impact forecasting for slopes
 CLIFFS  is an EPSRC-funded network based at Loughborough University aiming to bring together  academics, R&D agencies, stakeholders, consultants and climate specialists to improve  forecasting of slope instability in the context of progressive climate change



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Singapore PICNIC

SINGAPORE : National University Singapore (NUS), Workshop on Climate Change and Slope Stability, 16-19 December 2007

Visitors: Neil Dixon (Loughborough), Tom Dijkstra (Loughborough), Joel Smethurst (Southampton), Stephanie Glendinning (Newcastle), David Hughes (QuB), Paul Hughes (Newcastle), Domenico Gallipoli (Glasgow).

Purpose: To attend and present at the ‘Workshop on climate change and slope stability’, a session of the ‘Expert Symposium on Climate Change: Modelling, Impacts and Adaptions’ being held at NUS 17-19 December 2007. Opportunities to meet and network with academics and practitioners from Singapore, Indonesia, Thailand and Malaysia working on studies of engineered and natural slope instability and how this is driven by climate, as well as hearing a number of other presentations on climate change impacts, modelling and downscaling, and impacts on worldwide ecosystems and infrastructure. 

17 December 2007: The PICNIC team attended the first day of the Symposium to hear presentations from (amongst others) Professor Andrew Watkinson (Director, Tyndall Centre) on the scientific basis for climate change and adaptation, Dr Claire Goodess (UEA) on downscaling climate models, Robert Nicholls (University of Southampton) on the implications of climate change for coastal areas and Vicky Pope (Met Office Hadley Centre) on earth systems modelling.

18 December 2007: Workshop on climate change and slope stability. Neil Dixon and Stephanie Glendinning gave 1 hour presentations in the main session of the Symposium on Climate Change on the CLIFFS and BIONICS projects. Joel Smethurst, David Hughes, Paul Hughes, Tom Dijkstra, Domenico Gallipoli and David Toll all gave shorter (15 – 30 minute) presentations in the Workshop on Slope Stability and Climate Change. The Workshop was attended by an audience of about 30. Workshop presentations were also given by Bujang Haut (University Putra Malaysia), Suttisak Soralump and Apiniti Jotisankasa (Kasetsart University, Thailand), Adrin Tohari (Indonesian Institute of Sciences) and David Toll and KK Phoon (National University Singapore).

Adrin Tohari discussed the recent instrumentation of a large cut slope in Indonesia which had previously failed, showing some of the initial suction and rainfall measurements. Suttisak Soralump and Apiniti Jotisankasa gave a presentation on GIS mapping and landslide prediction in Thailand, laboratory testing of residual soils, and field measurements of suction (these were essentially a repeat of the presentations the Kasetsart University). David Toll and K K Phoon spoke about failures in residual soil cut slopes in Singapore, and how these are triggered by a loss of suction during heavy rainfall events. David presented correlations of slope instability to combinations of antecedent rainfall and rainfall events, with KK Phoon discussing numerical difficulties encountered during modelling of rainfall infiltration into unsaturated soils. Bujang Haut discussed slope instability problems and triggering rainfall events in Malaysia, and how these are likely to change under future climate scenarios. There are short conference papers summarising all of the presentations in the conference proceedings (reference given below).

The Workshop finished with a discussion session chaired by David Toll. A number of the South-East Asian attendees were impressed with the UK CLIFFS Network and how it had successfully pulled together academics and stakeholders in the UK. It was proposed that a similar network should be formed for those working on slopes research and practice in South-East Asia, and Tom Dijkstra agreed to get this started by forming a new set of pages on the UK CLIFFS website for South-East Asia (entitled SEA CLIFFS). As a start, it is intended that the SEA CLIFFS pages will contain an overview of the Workshop, including copies of the presentations.

The desire to have some kind of web repository for monitoring data so that it could be shared between international groups also came up in discussion. David Toll mentioned that he chairs the ISSMGE JTC2 on Representation of Geo-Engineering Data, and although this committee was not currently considering monitoring/instrumentation data, David suggested that this could be something the committee would consider.

19 December 2007: Meetings between the PICNIC team in the lounge of the Park Plaza Hotel: an opportunity to discuss future funding proposals, future joint conference papers and the next overseas visits.

Outputs: All presenters submitted a six page paper that was published as a conference volume: Expert Symposium: Proceedings of Climate Change: Modelling, Impacts and Adaptations (In conjunction with Workshop on Slope Stability and Climate Change). Eds: Liong S Y, Phoon K K, Toll D G (2007) Research Publishing Services. ISBN 978-81-904438-3-8. In addition, all of the presentations from the Workshop have been made available on the UK/SEA CLIFFS website (


Singapore sling

The singapore sling was created at Raffles Hotel at the turn of the century by Hainanese-Chinese bartender Mr Ngiam Tong Boon.

In the Hotel's museum, visitors may view the safe in which Mr Ngiam locked away his precious recipe books, as well as the Sling receipe hastily jotted down on a bar-chit in 1936 by a visitor to the Hotel who asked the waiter for it.

Originally, the SS was meant as a woman's drink, hence the attractive pink colour. Today, it is very definitely a drink enjoyed by all, without which any visit to Raffles Hotel is incomplete.

30ml Gin

15ml Heering cherry liqueur

120ml Pineaplle juice

15ml Lime juice

7.5ml Cointreau

7.5ml Dom Benedictine

10ml Grenadine

a dash of Angostura Bitters

Garnish with a slice of Pineapple and a Cherry, a parasol, straws and serve with some monkey nuts


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Highways Agency

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